Citizenship and Permanent Residency



Obtaining citizenship is the goal of many immigrants, as Canadian citizens are entitled to certain rights and privileges.  

In Canada, citizenship, along with its full rights, privileges and duties, can be obtained by three means:

  • The entitlement to citizenship by birth in the territory of Canada.
  • The entitlement to citizenship where one is born or adopted outside of Canada to at least one parent who is a Canadian citizen.
  • A person who became permanent resident of Canada may apply for the grant of citizenship to become naturalized Canadian citizens.

It should be noted that Canada recognizes dual citizenship (situations when more than one country recognizes a person to be its citizen).

A foreign national is entitled to apply for permanent residency if meeting the requirements of the IRPA and Regulations and make an application either through:

  • Family reunification (Sponsorship), on the basis of their relationship as the spouse, common-law partner, child, parent or other prescribed family member of a Canadian citizen or permanent resident.
  • Economic immigration (Express Entry, Federal Programs or Provincial Nominees Programs), on the basis of their ability to become economically established in Canada.
  • Refugees, inside or outside Canada, may be selected as a person in similar circumstances, taking into account Canada’s humanitarian tradition with respect to the displaced and the persecuted.

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